Listen and watch. Summarise the main points.

TASK 1.Answer these questions.


  1. James Bessen
  1. complains about the ATMs
  2. raises the question why there are many tellers
  3. expresses that in spite of all the doom and  gloom automation has not replaced human labour.


  1. ATMs, automated teller machines, had two countervailing effects on bank teller employment…. The word countervailing means:
  1. Negative
  2. Offsetting
  3. profitable
  1. The O ring principle has to do with:
  1. Negativity
  2. Insatiability
  3. creativity
  1.    There is no economic law that says that we will use wealth well thanks to the influence of technology
  1.  it is worrying
  2. it is Worth trying
  3. it is reliable
  1. He states that
  1. Our economic and social hell is to blame for technology
  2. Technology is to blame for our economic and social hell.
  3. The social and economic hell are obvious   


TASK 2- Complete

An ingenious metaphor for this tragic setting is the O-ring production function, named by Harvard economist Michael Kremer after the Challenger disaster. The O-ring production function -----------------------------------------------------------------of the work as a series of ______________________________________steps, links in a chain. Every one of those links ____________________________________________________the mission to succeed. If any of them fails, the mission, or the product or the service, comes crashing down. This _____________________________ situation has a surprisingly positive implication, which is that improvements in the reliability of any one link in the chain increases (…)


TASK 3: Summarize the two principles: O-ring and the never-get-enough principle.

TASK 4:Paraphrase using your own words:

  1. And this brings me to the challenge that we face today, the challenge that automation poses for us
  2. Let me give you a stark example.
  3. Most of the work that we do requires a multiplicity of skills, and brains and brawn, technical expertise and intuitive mastery, perspiration and inspiration in the words of Thomas Edison
  4. Rising to this challenge, they took the radical step of requiring that their entire youth population remain in school and continue their education to the ripe old age of 16.
  5. The first part of the answer is that technology magnifies our leverage, increases the importance, the added value of our expertise, our judgment and our creativity
  6. These predictions strike me as arrogant.


Fecha: 15/11/2017 | Creado por: Romina
Categoria: Listening