Read the theory and examples

Present perfect simple

Positive

 

I – We – You - They

have (‘ve)

played.

He – She – It

has (‘s)

played.

 

Negative

 

I – We – You - They

have not (haven‘t)

played.

He – She – It

has not (hasn‘t)

played.

 

Questions

 

Have

I – we – you – they

played?

Has

he – she – it

played?

Remember that the main verb should always be in PAST PARTICIPLE.

EXAMPLE:  PLAY - PLAYED - PLAYED (REGULAR VERB)            WRITE - WROTE - WRITTEN (IRREGULAR VERB)

                     PLAYED IS THE PAST PARTICIPLE                              WRITTEN IS THE PAST PARTICIPLE

Short answers

 

Yes,

I – we – you – they

he – she – it

have.

has.

No,

I – we – you – they

he – she – it

haven’t.

hasn’t.

 

We use the Present Perfect Simple to talk about: 

 

 

We often use time words and phrases with present perfect simple to make the meaning clear.

just (a short time)

 

recently

Someone has just broken the window.

"Are you hungry?"  "No, I've just had lunch."

Scientists have recently found more than 30 unknown insects.

ever? never

Have you ever flown in a helicopter? I’ve never travelled by plane.

already (sooner than expected)

I’ve already finished my homework. It was easy!

yet? (we expect something to happen soon)

Have you finished yet?

not … yet (for things which have not happened so far)

Peter hasn’t phoned yet. I’m still waiting.

 

For and since

  • We use for with a length of time.

She’s worked here for ten years.

  • We use since with a point of time to describe when the period of time began.

They’ve lived here since 2001.

Resultado de imagen para present perfect continuous

 

BEEN and GONE

A number of astronauts have been to the Moon. (and have returned)

The space probe Voyager has gone past the planet Neptune. (it hasn’t returned)

 

Examples:

  • have already prepared breakfast.
  • My sister has cleaned the room.
  • Has the post come yet?
  • It has rained a lot lately.
  • haven’t seen Susan since Sunday.
  • She has watched this movie several times.
  • He has saved $20.000.000 up until now.
  • They have gone fishing until later this evening.
  • have solved 20 questions so far.
  • Hasn’t my mother cooked the dinner yet?
  • We haven’t received any mail since we were retired.
  • have already made the coffee.
  • Have you ever been to England?
  • You have already eaten four plums.
  • We haven’t met before.
  • have lived in Texas for 10 years.
  • Tom has just come to the office.
  • The students have read that poem twice.
  • have never lied in my life.
  • We haven’t gone to watch the new movie.
  • It hasn’t stopped.
  • have never been to Germany.
  • Have you done the essay yet?
  • Call me when you’ve finished writing the report.

 

Present perfect continuous

Positive

 

I – We – You - They

have (‘ve)

been

Playing.

He – She – It

has (‘s)

Been

Playing.

 

Negative

 

I – We – You - They

have not (haven‘t)

been

Playing.

He – She – It

has not (hasn‘t)

Been

Playing.

 

Questions

 

Have

I – we – you – they

been

Playing?

Has

he – she – it

Been

Playing?

 

Short answers

 

Yes,

I – we – you – they

he – she – it

have.

has.

No,

I – we – you – they

he – she – it

haven’t.

hasn’t.

 

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about: 

 

Examples:

  • They have been talking for the last hour.
  • She has been working at that company for three years.
  • What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
  • James has been teaching at the university since June.
  • We have been waiting here for over two hours!
  • Why has Monica not been taking her medicine for the last three days?
  • Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
  • She has been watching too much television lately.
  • Have you been exercising lately?
  • Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
  • Lisa has not been practicing her English.
  • What have you been doing?

 

To see differences between Present Perfect and Simple Past click HERE

 

Present perfect simple or continuous?

 

  •  Completed or not completed? 

The present perfect simple can show that an action is complete.

I’ve finished my homework!

If we say how many or how much we use the simple form. A certain amount has been completed.

I’ve written ten pages of my homework!

 

The present perfect continuous can show that an action is not completed, or that it has finished recently.

We’ve been walking for hours! Let’s have a rest.

I’ve been digging in the garden. That’s why I’m so dirty!

 

  • Present result or action in progress?

We use the present perfect simple if our attention is on the present result.

I’ve written my homework. Now I can watch the television.

We use the present perfect continuous if our attention is on the action in progress.

I’ve been writing my homework all the evening! I didn’t know it would take so long.

 

  •  Temporary or permanent?

 

We use the Present Perfect simple when we view the action as more permanent.

Eg: I have worked here for ten years.

 

We use the Present Perfect continuous when we view the action as temporary.

Eg: I usually work in Dubai, but I've been working in New York for two weeks.

 

 

 

 

Fecha: 29/4/2019 | Creado por: Cynthia Sara
Categoria: Unit 2